Geneva is the second-most populous city in Switzerland and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Canton of Geneva; the municipality has a population of 201,818, the canton has 499,480 residents. In 2014, the compact agglomération du Grand Genève had 946,000 inhabitants in 212 communities in both Switzerland and France. Within Swiss territory, the commuter area named "Métropole lémanique" contains a population of 1.26 million. This area is spread east from Geneva towards the Riviera area and north-east towards Yverdon-les-Bains, in the neighbouring canton of Vaud. Geneva is a global city, a financial centre, a worldwide centre for diplomacy due to the presence of numerous international organizations, including the headquarters of many agencies of the United Nations and the Red Cross. Geneva hosts the highest number of international organizations in the world, it is where the Geneva Conventions were signed, which chiefly concern the treatment of wartime non-combatants and prisoners of war.
In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the world's fifteenth most important financial centre for competitiveness by the Global Financial Centres Index, fifth in Europe behind London, Zürich and Luxembourg. In 2019 Geneva was ranked among the ten most liveable cities in the world by Mercer together with Zürich and Basel; the city has been referred to as the world's most compact metropolis and the "Peace Capital". In 2017, Geneva was ranked as the seventh most expensive city in the world. Geneva was ranked first by gross earnings, second expensive, third in earnings purchasing power gross hourly pay in a global cities ranking by UBS in 2018; the city was mentioned in Latin texts, by Caesar, with the spelling Genava from the Celtic *genawa- from the stem *genu-, in the sense of a bending river or estuary, an etymology shared with the Italian port city of Genoa. The medieval county of Geneva in Middle Latin was known as pagus major Genevensis or Comitatus Genevensis. After 1400 it became the Genevois province of Savoy.
Geneva was an Allobrogian border town, fortified against the Helvetii tribe, when the Romans took it in 121 BC. It became Christian under the Late Roman Empire, acquired its first bishop in the 5th century, having been connected to the Bishopric of Vienne in the 4th. In the Middle Ages, Geneva was ruled by a count under the Holy Roman Empire until the late 14th century, when it was granted a charter giving it a high degree of self-governance. Around this time, the House of Savoy came to at least nominally dominate the city. In the 15th century, an oligarchic republican government emerged with the creation of the Grand Council. In the first half of the 16th century, the Protestant Reformation reached the city, causing religious strife, during which Savoy rule was thrown off and Geneva allied itself with the Swiss Confederacy. In 1541, with Protestantism on the rise, John Calvin, the Protestant Reformer and proponent of Calvinism, became the spiritual leader of the city and established the Republic of Geneva.
By the 18th century, Geneva had come under the influence of Catholic France, which cultivated the city as its own. France tended to be at odds with the ordinary townsfolk, which inspired the failed Geneva Revolution of 1782, an attempt to win representation in the government for men of modest means. In 1798, revolutionary France under the Directory annexed Geneva. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, on 1 June 1814, Geneva was admitted to the Swiss Confederation. In 1907, the separation of Church and State was adopted. Geneva flourished in the 19th and 20th centuries, becoming the seat of many international organizations. Geneva is located at 46°12' North, 6°09' East, at the south-western end of Lake Geneva, where the Rhône flows out, it is surrounded by three mountain chains, each belonging to the Jura: the Jura main range lies north-westward, the Vuache southward, the Salève south-eastward. The city covers an area of 15.93 km2, while the area of the canton is 282 km2, including the two small exclaves of Céligny in Vaud.
The part of the lake, attached to Geneva has an area of 38 km2 and is sometimes referred to as petit lac. The canton has only a 4.5-kilometre-long border with the rest of Switzerland. Of 107.5 km of border, 103 are shared with France, the Département de l'Ain to the north and west and the Département de la Haute-Savoie to the south and east. Of the land in the city, 0.24 km2, or 1.5%, is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.5 km2, or 3.1%, is forested. The rest of the land, 14.63 km2, or 91.8%, is built up, 0.49 km2, or 3.1%, is either rivers or lakes and 0.02 km2, or 0.1%, is wasteland. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 3.4%, housing and buildings made up 46.2% and transportation infrastructure 25.8%, while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 15.7%. Of the agricultural land, 0.3% is used for growing crops. Of the water in the municipality, 0.2 % is composed of lakes and 2.9 % streams. The altitude of Geneva is 373.6 metres and corresponds to the altitude of the largest of the Pierres du Niton, two large rocks emerging from the lake which date from the last ice age.
The Kahlenbergerdorf Parish Church is a Roman Catholic parish church in the suburb of Kahlenbergerdorf in the 19th district of Vienna, Döbling. It is dedicated to Saint George. A church is recorded in Kahlenbergerdorf in 1168; the church was destroyed in 1529 by the Turks but it was rebuilt. Renovation work took place in 1633 and 1771; the parish church is based on a simple late Romanesque/early Gothic building, given a Baroque appearance during the last renovation. The southern spire was given a Baroque roof; the church’s white rib vault was erected on the remains of the medieval church, destroyed by the Turks. The central element of the church is the Baroque altar with a depiction of Saint Andrew, he is flanked by statues of Saint Florian. There is a depiction of Saint George from 1827. To the right of the altar, there is a late Gothic altar to Mary, erected in 1760; the depiction of the Madonna in the centre of the church dates from the early 16th century. There is a large, Baroque crucifix on the southern wall, part of an altar.
The altar was removed in the 19th century. Further noteworthy elements of the church are a Gothic Baptismal font made of red marble, an alms box decorated with rosettes, a stoup; the organ was made by Franz Ullmann in 1849. Klusacek, Christine. Vom Gürtel zu den Weinbergen. Wien 1988 Schwarz, Godehard: Döbling. Zehn historische Spaziergänge durch Wiens 19. Bezirk. Wien 2004 Pfarre Kahlenbergerdorf Die Pfarre auf www.kahlenbergerdorf.at
Object Desktop is an online software subscription service created by Stardock for OS/2 and relaunched for Windows in 1997. Object Desktop includes most graphical user interface customization and productivity products offered by Stardock, including WindowBlinds, DesktopX, Tweak7, IconPackager and ObjectBar. Object Desktop — entitled The Workplace Toolset/2 — was developed over three years by Brad Wardell and Kurt Westerfeld subsequent to Stardock's OS/2 Essentials, a pre-registered set of OS/2 shareware. Object Desktop 1.0 was followed by 1.5 and Professional versions following in short order. By 1997 the OS/2 ISV market was flagging, many customers were switching to Windows NT 4. 1997 OS/2 revenues were 33% of those in 1996, they fell to 25% of 1996 levels in 1998. This led to their decision to switch to Windows in mid-1997. Stardock remained an OS/2 ISV until February 2001, when they stopped selling Object Desktop for OS/2. OS/2 versions were sold as initial versions and upgrades, costing more than Windows versions due to lower volume of sales.
The initial release of Object Desktop was both praised for its functionality and criticised for performance and compatibility issues. Object Desktop 1.5 was released on 2 May 1996, fixing many problems, adding the following components: Users of 1.0 could upgrade for $37. Object Desktop Professional was aimed at professional users of OS/2, it was released on 24 August 1996, priced at $179. In addition to the features of OD 1.5, the package included: Object Desktop 2.0 was an update to all released components, an integration of the Professional features into the main package. It was priced at $99.95. An upgrade to 2.02 was released at the start of 2000, but it was made clear that it would be the last release. When it became clear that OS/2 would not remain a viable platform, Stardock decided to move to Windows; this required rewriting old components and writing new ones to replace those which were not appropriate for Windows. This would take time, but Stardock needed money to sustain development.
To cope with this cashflow problem, Object Desktop users who had switched from OS/2 to Windows were asked to purchase Windows subscriptions in advance of the actual software, on the understanding that their subscription period would only begin when the software was reasonably complete. This program was called the Early Experience Program. Due to significant goodwill built up over the previous years, many signed up, Stardock survived; the new Object Desktop package was related to the OS/2 versions, with old favourites like Object Edit, Control Center and Task/Tab Launchpad being ported over. However, as the userbase expanded from its traditional core of technical users into the wider Windows market, newer components shifted to focus on customizing the graphical user interface; the flagship component of Object Desktop became WindowBlinds. Impulse is the main interface for registering and updating components, it is equivalent to a package manager. Users pay an initial fee for one year of access to download updates.
They may download new components added during their subscription period. Updates are not guaranteed. After expiry, users can not download any software. Renewals add a year of access from the date of renewal, not the expiry date; the initial subscription fee for the Windows version of Object Desktop has been $49.95, while a year's renewal or an upgrade from a standalone component has been $34.95. Object Desktop 2008 introduced two tiers, with the lower tier at $49.95 and the higher tier at $69.95, but the latter was eliminated in 2010. Object Desktop works on a component model; these components are available to all Object Desktop subscribers as of February 2010: These components may remain available for some legacy subscribers, but are not offered to new users: These components have been withdrawn from service or did not make it past the beta stages: These components were not brought forth to the Windows version of Object Desktop: An occasional complaint with the subscription model is that a subscriber's favourite component has not been updated or may be left in beta for a long time.
On the other hand, popular components such as WindowBlinds tend to be updated, with beta releases every week or two, release versions with new features every few months, major version changes every year or so. Some non-Object Desktop users have said the beta issue creates a double standard and forces people to upgrade to Object Desktop in order to get the latest features, while Stardock says that the policy is due to too many standalone users expecting beta versions to have the same reliability as release versions, the increased ease of releasing a build on Impulse over a separate installation package. Object Desktop, a history Stardock's OS/2 history 10 years of Stardock/Stardock's 10-year Anniversary Object Desktop website
A Nightmare on Elm Street is an American horror franchise that consists of nine slasher films, a television series and comic books. The films began with the film A Nightmare on Elm Street created by Wes Craven; the series revolves around the fictional character Freddy Krueger, a former child killer who after being burned alive by the vengeful parents of his victims, returns from the grave to terrorize and kill the teenage residents of Springwood, Ohio in their dreams. The original film was written and directed by Craven, who returned to co-script the second sequel, A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors, to write and direct New Nightmare; the films collectively grossed $750 million at the box office worldwide. The original film was released in 1984. A series of sequels produced by the independent film company New Line Cinema followed. New Line attributes the growth of their company to the success of the Nightmare series; the film series as a whole has received mixed reviews by critics, but has been a financial success at the box office.
When comparing the United States box office grosses of other American horror film series, A Nightmare on Elm Street is the third highest grossing series in adjusted US dollars. In 1988, a television series was produced with Freddy as the host; the pilot episode focused on the night Freddy was burned alive by the angry parents of the children he had killed, though the rest of the series featured episodes with independent plots. Twelve novels, separate from the adaptations of the films, multiple comic book series were published featuring Freddy Krueger, as well as a crossover film featuring fellow horror icon Jason Voorhees from the Friday the 13th franchise. A remake of the 1984 film was released in 2010, a second remake is planned; the original film and directed by Wes Craven and titled A Nightmare on Elm Street, was released in 1984. The story focuses on Freddy Krueger attacking Nancy Thompson and her friends in their dreams killing all but Nancy, in fictional Springwood, Ohio. Krueger's back-story is revealed by Nancy's mother, who explains he was a child murderer.
The parents of Springwood killed Krueger. Nancy defeats Freddy by pulling him from the dream world and stripping him of his powers when she stops being afraid of him. Freddy returns to attack the new family, the Walshes, living in Nancy Thompson's house in 1985's A Nightmare on Elm Street 2: Freddy's Revenge. Freddy possesses the body of Jesse Walsh, using him to kill. Jesse is temporarily saved by his girlfriend Lisa. Wes Craven returned to write A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors, released in 1987. In the second sequel, Freddy is systematically killing the last of the Elm Street children; the few remaining children have been placed in Westin Hills Mental Institution, for attempting suicide. Nancy Thompson arrives at Westin Hills as a new intern, realizes the children are being killed by Freddy. With the help of Dr. Neil Gordon, Nancy helps Kristen Parker, Taryn and Will find their dream powers, so they can kill Freddy once and for all. Neil, unknowingly until the end, meets the spirit of Freddy's mother, Amanda Krueger, who instructs him to bury Freddy's remains in hallowed ground in order to stop him for good.
Neil completes his task, but not before Freddy kills Nancy. The story of Kristen Parker would continue with 1988's A Nightmare on Elm Street 4: The Dream Master; this time, Kristen unwittingly releases Freddy, who kills Kincaid and Joey. Before Freddy can kill Kristen, she transfers her dream powers to Alice Johnson, a friend from school. Alice begins inadvertently providing victims for Freddy when she begins pulling people into her dreams while she sleeps. Alice, who begins taking on traits of the friends who were murdered, confronts Freddy, she uses the power of the Dream Master to release all the souls. Picking up shortly after the events of The Dream Master, A Nightmare on Elm Street 5: The Dream Child involves Freddy using Alice's unborn child, Jacob, to resurrect himself and find new victims; the spirit of Amanda Krueger returns, revealing that Freddy was conceived when she, a nun working in a mental asylum, was accidentally locked in a room with "100 maniacs" and raped "hundreds of times".
Amanda Krueger convinces Jacob to use the powers he was given by Freddy against him, which gives her the chance to subdue Freddy long enough for Alice and Jacob to escape the dream world. Two years 1991's Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare followed the exploits of "John Doe", an amnesiac teenager from Springwood, sent out to find Freddy's daughter Maggie, who he needs to leave Springwood. Freddy's goal is to create new "Elm Streets", begin a new killing spree after having killed all of the children in Springwood. Maggie, utilizing new dream techniques, uncovers Krueger's past, which include: being taunted by schoolmates for being the "son of 100 maniacs", being cruel to animals, beaten by his stepfather, the murder of his own wife when she discovers he has been killing children, the moment when the Dream Demons arrive in his boiler room to make him the offer of eternal life. Maggie pulls Freddy out of the dream world, uses a pipe bomb to blow him up. Wes Craven returned to the Nightmare series a third time with New Nightmare in 1994.
This film focuses on a fictional "reality", where C
Joseph von Rudolphi, or Joseph von Rudolfi, was from 1717 onwards abbot of the Abbey of Saint Gall and kitchen master. His parents were the lieutenant colonel and imperial commander Johann Christoph von Rudolphi from Ljubljana and Maria Salome von Berneck; the Catholic Joseph von Rudolphi joined the Saint Gall monastery school in 1683 and took his religious vows in 1685. On 30 March 1686, he received his minor orders, on 12 May 1688, he became subdeacon and on 18 September of the same year deacon. Von Rudolphi was made priest on 22 September 1690 and subcustos on 5 December 1691. In different sources he is furthermore mentioned as teacher of grammar, assistant kitchen master, <i>Gastpater</i> and subgranarius. On 18 January 1694, he was appointed kitchen master in Saint Gall on in St. Johann and Rorschach. In 1707, von Rudolphi became Brüdermagister and he began to act as custos and confessor in Notkersegg in 1708. From 1712 onwards, he held the office of subprior. With the Abbot of Einsiedeln Abbey, Thomas Schenkli, as chairman, von Rudolphi was unanimously elected Abbot of Saint Gall in exile at Castle Neuravensburg in Allgäu on 16 December 1717.
Pope Clement XI confirmed the new abbot on 27 April 1718. The benediction, performed by Bishop Johann Franz Schenk von Stauffenberg of Konstanz and the assisting Abbots of Einsiedeln and Mehrerau, was delayed to 24 June 1721. After his election, the new abbot tried to make peace. Thus, at the beginning of May 1718, six years after the end of the Toggenburg War, the negotiations in Baden began; the peace contract contained 84 points and could be signed on 15 June 1718. The contract, ratified by the abbot was brought to Zurich and Bern on 6 August 1718 in order to be ratified there as well. However, Clement XI discarded the contract. Abbot von Rudolphi returned from exile to Rorschach on 7 September 1718, he began receiving homage in Toggenburg. On 11 October, he moved into Saint Gall and on 15 October and the silentium as well as, a day the orthros could be reintroduced. Only on 23 March 1719 did the abbot receive a large part of the library, brought to Zurich at the beginning of the war. Other items belonging to the prey of the people of Bern, for instance eight bells and seven fire engines, arrived in Saint Gall on 5 May 1721.
Von Rudolphi divided Gossau and Oberriet. He introduced a new registry of documents to the archive of the monastery and let escape boxes be made. From 1719 to 1722, from 1724 to 1726, in 1730 and from 1735 to 1736, the abbot conducted thorough visitations in order to gain an overview of the local school conditions. On 8 and 9 May 1737, von Rudolphi organised a synod in Saint Gall, he ordered Caspar Moosbrugger in 1721 to draw a draft of the new minster. Von Rudolphi defined the exact border demarcations with the dominions adjoining Saint Gall. On 29 April 1731, the abbot renewed the alliance with France from the year 1663. After several disputes in Toggenburg, the abbatial magistrates Johann Baptist Keller and Niklaus Rüdlinger, leading the opposition against the abbey, were murdered on 8 December 1735. On 9 January 1739, the conference in Frauenfeld concerning the six places of arbitration, supported by France ended without result. Merchants und manufacturers were called together by the abbot to a conference in Rorschach on 11 March 1739 with the aim of discussing trade questions and the implementation of a trade and industry order, passed and evoked on 8 April of the same year.
By means of thoughtful administration and economy, the abbot reduced the abbey's debts. On 21 September 1739, von Rudolphi expelled Konstanz's official Franz Andreas Rettich, assigned by the bishop to visit the Saint Gall parishes, from the abbatial territory; this led to a renewed conflict with the Bishopric Konstanz concerning jurisdiction and visitation rights. Erhart, Peter. 2010: "Joseph von Rudolphi". Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz. "Abt Joseph von Rudolphi" in the Stadtlexikon Wil
Filminute is the international one-minute film festival dedicated to presenting and awarding the world's best one-minute films. Filminute was founded in 2005 and the inaugural festival ran in September 2006. Like other leading international Film Festivals, Filminute looks for films that deliver a well-balanced equation of content, dialogue, storytelling and sound design. Filminute accepts films from the categories of fiction, animation and mashup; the annual festival and competition runs throughout the month of October. An international jury consisting of luminaries from the fields of filmmaking, literature and communications is responsible for the awarding of Best Filminute. Audiences worldwide are invited online to vote for the People's Choice Award. Filminute 2006 featured submissions from 25 countries and attracted a worldwide, online audience from over 50 countries. Best Filminute honours went to Anton Groves for his UK-Romanian production Line; the People's Choice Award was won by Wayne Campbell for his UK production It Could Be.
According to Ekow Eshun, artistic director of London's Institute of Contemporary Arts and Filminute 2006 jury member, Filminute "demonstrated a high level of polish and a strong and exciting progression in user-generated content. Filminute has raised the bar in its first year and I am interested to see how high the bar can go". Filminute 2007 generated submissions from 45 countries, viewership from over 90 countries, more than 2 million viewings of the shortlisted films online and on television; the jury-awarded Best Filminute went to Kristina Grozeva's Game, while The People's Choice was awarded to Siddartha Jatla's Missing. During an October 2007 television interview with Filminute co-founder and executive director John Ketchum, CBC journalist and host Evan Solomon described Filminute as "the future of modern storytelling". Filminute 2008 drew submissions from 60 countries, viewership from 94 countries, more than 3 million viewings of the shortlisted films online and on television; the jury-awarded Best Filminute went to Oli Hyatt's StitchUp Showdown - Gym Jam and The People's Choice was awarded to Pici Papai's Quick.
The 2008 festival attracted a great deal of media attention including that of Wired.com whose headline ran, "If those sprawling three-minute YouTube clips seem to drag on forever, the international one-minute film festival, might be right up your alley." Filminute 2009 drew submissions from 55 countries, audiences from 122 countries and more than 3 million viewings of the shortlisted films online and across a variety of media. The jury-awarded Best Filminute went to UK's Phil Sansom & Olly Williams for their film Black Hole; the People's Choice was awarded to Canada's James Cooper for Life. The 2009 festival drew many positive reviews including Ronald Bergan's Guardian UK article "One Hot Minute: How Long is a Piece of Film?" which praised Filminute’s collection of "technically impressive mini-movies" and the festival’s commitment and focus "on story". Filminute 2012 marked the second time an animation won Best Filminute, with Director Ant Blade’s Chop-Chop taking the top prize; as well, Ant Blade was only the third filmmaker in the festival’s eight-year history to have two films shortlisted in the same year.
The People's Choice award was won by Ben Jacobson for his smirk-inducing drama Candy Crime. In addition to a record 134 countries tuning in to see the films, a surge in the number of comedies, 2012 saw the festival’s eastern presence grow with strong shortlisted films from Lithuania, Georgia and Russia. Filminute 2013 welcomed American independent filmmaking icon Richard Linklater to the jury who together with FIPRESCI film critic Carmen Gray and other luminaries awarded Best Filminute honours to Dutch filmmaker David Stevens for his excellent documentary M-22. At the same time, the big story at the festival's 8th edition was Martinique filmmaker Khris Burton’s film Maybe Another Time, which won the People’s Choice and Top Rated awards, as well as finishing first in the Jury Commendations, it was the strongest finish for a single film at the festival. Filminute 2014 set new viewing records for the festival with over 5 million views recorded for the collection. Much of this was on the back of Ignacio Rodó's moving thriller Tuck Me In, which won the jury-awarded Best Filminute.
The People's Choice award went to André Marques' heartwarming film Grandpa, which impressed with a Jury Commendation, a runner-up ranking for Top Rated, as well as the inaugural Cineuropa Audience Award. The festival and films garnered widespread international media attention including Hugh Hart's piece in Fast Company "60-Second Knockouts" Filminute celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2015 with Guillaume Renusson's ground-breaking and powerful French sign-language film A Minute of Silence; the film was the overwhelming choice of the international jury, which included Oscar-winning producer Cathy Schulman, FIPRESCI General Secretary Klaus Eder, advertising heavyweight Kevin Roberts. Multiple Filminute award-winner Khris Burton returned to take the People's Choice award for his dark and magical film Nanny, and the Top Rated award went to Romania's George Molesag for his hard-hitting drama Rematch. To celebrate the 10th anniversary, film critic Carlo Perassi teamed up with a Taste of Cinema to write the popular "The Ten Best One-Minute Films of the Past Decade" Filminute 2016 was honoured to welcome renowned and prolific Taiwanese filmmaker Hou Hsiao-Hsien to the jury.