极速快乐十分

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      4. SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

        Gold dinar

        The gold dinar is an Islamic medieval gold coin first issued in AH 77 by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. The weight of the dinar is 1 mithqal; the word dinar comes from the Latin word denarius, a silver coin. The name "dinar" is used for Sasanid and Kidarite gold coins, though it is not known what the contemporary name was; the first dinars were issued by the Umayyad Caliphate. Under the dynasties that followed the use of the dinar spread from Islamic Spain to Central Asia. Although there was a dictum that the Byzantine solidus was not to be used outside of the Byzantine empire, there was some trade that involved these coins which did not get re-minted by the emperors minting operations, became worn. Towards the end of the 7th century CE, Arabic copies of solidi – dinars issued by the caliph Abd al-Malik, who had access to supplies of gold from the upper Nile – began to circulate in areas outside of the Byzantine empire; these corresponded in weight to only 20 carats, but matched with the weight of the worn solidi that were circulating in those areas at the time.

        The two coins circulated together in these areas for a time. The first dated coins that can be assigned to the Muslims are copies of silver Dirhams of the Sassanian ruler Yazdegerd III, struck during the Caliphate of Uthman; these coins differ from the original ones in that an Arabic inscription is found in the obverse margins reading "in the Name of Allah". The subsequent series was issued using types based on drachmas of Khosrau II, whose coins represented a significant proportion of the currency in circulation. In parallel with the Khosrau-type Arab-Sassanian coins, first issued under the Well-Guided Caliphs of Islam, a more extensive series was struck with Khosrau's name replaced by that of the local Arab governor or, in two cases, that of the Caliph. Historical evidence makes it clear; the earliest Muslim copper coins are anonymous and undated but a series exists which may have been issued during the Caliphates of Uthman or Ali. These are crude copies of Byzantine 12-nummus pieces of Heraclius from Alexandria.

        By the year AH 75 Abd al-Malik had decided on changes to the coinage. A scattering of patterned pieces in silver exist from this date, based on Sassanian prototypes but with distinctive Arabic reverses; this experiment, which maintained the Sassanian weight standard of 3.5–4.0 grams was not proceeded with, in AH 79 a new type of silver coin was struck at 14 mints to a new nominal weight of 2.97 grams. Unlike the contemporary gold coinage, this figure does not seem to have been achieved in practice; the average weight of sixty undamaged specimens of AH 79–84 is only 2.71 grams, a figure close to that for a unique coin of AH 79 struck with no mint name. These new coins which bore the name of'dirham', established the style of the Arab-Sassanian predecessors at 25 to 28 mm in diameter, their design is composed of Arabic inscriptions surrounded by annulets. On each side there is a three- or four-line legend with a single circular inscription. Outside this are three line circles with, at first, five annulets surrounding them.

        The side taken as the obverse has as its central legend the Kalima or shahada: "There is no god except Allah alone, there is no partner with Him." Around it is the mint and date formula reading "In the Name of Allah: this Dirham was struck in the year ". The reverse has a four line central inscription taken from the Surah 112 of the Quran; the marginal legend states: "Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, he was sent with guidance and the religion of truth to make it prevail over every other religion, averse though the idolaters may be" The gold coins were first struck to the contemporary standard of 4.4 grams and with one or more Arabic Standing figures on the obverse and an Arabic legend on the reverse. Dated coins exist from AH 74 and are named as'Dinars'; these experimental issues were replaced in AH 77, except in North Africa and Spain, by epigraphical designs similar to the designs adopted for the silver pieces but with a shorter reverse legend and no annulets or inner circles. This type was used without appreciable change for the whole of Umayyad period, the coins being struck to a new and controlled standard of 4.25 grams.

        This weight was reputed to be based on the average of the current Byzantine solidi, was called a Mithqal, a term used earlier for ​1⁄72 of a ratl. Evidence of the importance attached to the close control of the new Dinars is provided by the existence of glass weights from Egypt, they show the governor's name, sometimes the date but all marked with coin denomination. The issues in gold from North Africa began as copies of the coins of Heraclius and his son, the reverse "cross on steps" losing in most cases its cross piece. Dinars and thirds were struck, all to the new weight standard. Coins are dated by indiction, from Indiction II changing to the Hijra date in Roman numerals in AH 94 with Arabic phrases appearing in the field from AH 97. In AH 100, North Africa came into line with the eastern issues although the mint is named as Ifriqiya; the legends are shorter and the reverse has a new central inscription: "In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate". This was used on the coins from Al-Andalus, on the half and third Dinars, most of which show no mint but may well have been struck in Al-Andalus.

        Fals Por

        Grade II* listed buildings in Caerphilly County Borough

        In the United Kingdom, the term listed building refers to a building or other structure designated as being of special architectural, historical, or cultural significance. Listing was begun by a provision in the Town and Country Planning Act 1947. Once listed, strict limitations are imposed on the modifications allowed to a building's structure or fittings. In Wales, the authority for listing under the Planning Act 1990 rests with Cadw. Listed buildings in Wales Grade I listed buildings in Caerphilly County Borough List of Scheduled Monuments in Caerphilly Media related to Grade II* listed buildings in Caerphilly County Borough at Wikimedia Commons

        SGMW Motor Indonesia

        PT SGMW Motor Indonesia is a subsidiary wholly owned by SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile, a joint venture between SAIC Motor, General Motors, Liuzhou Wuling Motors Co Ltd to handle their Indonesian operations. It is the first Chinese automotive company to build a manufacturing plant in Indonesia. Unlike their operations in China, SGMW Indonesia only utilises one marque, Wuling Motors, instead of both Wuling and Baojun; as the result, the subsidiary only used the Wuling Motors name and logo as the company identity. In 2018, Wuling Motors is the ninth biggest automotive manufacturing company in Indonesia and the sixth biggest passenger car manufacturing company in Indonesia, according to the Association of Indonesia Automotive Industry; the company started its operation by building its first plant in Greenland International Industrial Center in Cikarang, Bekasi Regency, West Java province in August 20, 2015. Built on a 600,000 m2 land including the supplier park, the plant was built for the production and manufacture of automobile in Indonesia and to set up an export base for Southeast Asia.

        The investment of the project is around US$700 million. The plant is expected to produce up to 150,000 vehicles in a year in its maximum capacity and is estimated to create 3,000 jobs for Indonesia. In August 2016, SGMW Motor Indonesia joined the 2016 Gaikindo Indonesia International Auto Show and showcased the Wuling Hongguang S1 and Baojun 730. In July 11, 2017, the plant started its operations for mass production and was inaugurated by the vice president of Indonesia, Jusuf Kalla, their first product was a compact MPV named Confero, a rebadged Hongguang S1. Initial pricing started at Rp 128 million, making it the cheapest MPV in its respective class. At the end of 2017, Wuling Motors climbed into the top-10 car brand in Indonesia by production and sales. In February 9, 2018, the company launched the Cortez, a rebadged Baojun 730. In November 7, 2018, Wuling launched the Formo as a commercial variant of the Confero. At the end of 2018, Wuling missed the targeted vehicle sales of 30,000 units, instead recorded 17,002 units for the wholesales figure and 15,162 units for the retail sales figure.

        In February 27, 2019, Wuling unveiled the Almaz, a rebadged Baojun 530 as their first SUV in Indonesia. Wuling announced that it would export Almaz to Thailand and Fiji as the Chevrolet Captiva. Wuling Confero Confero Confero S Confero S ACT Wuling Cortez Cortez 1.5 Cortez 1.8 Cortez CT Wuling Formo Wuling Almaz Wuling Motors Indonesia official website Wuling Motors Indonesia official website

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