The Porsche 917 is a sports prototype race car developed by German manufacturer Porsche. The 917 gave Porsche its first overall wins at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1970 and 1971. Powered by the Type 912 flat-12 engine of 4.5, 4.9, or 5 litres, the 917/30 Can-Am variant was capable of a 0-62 mph time of 2.3 seconds, 0–124 mph in 5.3 seconds, a test track top speed of up to 240 mph. In 1971 the car featured in the Steve McQueen film Le Mans. In 2017 the car driven by McQueen in the film was sold at auction for $14m, a record price for a Porsche. For the 40th anniversary of the 917 in 2009 Porsche held a special celebration at the Goodwood Festival of Speed. In an effort to reduce the speeds generated at Le Mans and other fast circuits of the day by the unlimited capacity Group 6 prototypes the Commission Sportive Internationale announced that the International Championship of Makes would be run for three-litre Group 6 prototypes for four years from 1968 through 1971; this capacity reduction would serve to entice manufacturers who were building three-litre Formula One engines into endurance racing.
Well aware that few manufacturers were ready to take up the challenge the CSI allowed the participation of five-litre Group 4 sports cars, of which a minimum of 50 units had to be manufactured. This targeted existing cars like the aging Ford GT40 Mk. I and the newer Lola T70 coupe. In April 1968, facing few entrants in races, the CSI announced that the minimum production figure to compete in the sport category of the International Championship of Makes was reduced from 50 to 25, starting in 1969 through the planned end of the rules in 1971. With Ferrari absent in 1968 Porsche 908s and Ford P68s were entered there, with the Ford being a total failure; as a result, old 2.2-litre Porsche 907s won that category, with John Wyer's 4.7-litre Ford GT40 Mk. I taking wins at faster tracks. Starting in July 1968, Porsche made a surprising and expensive effort to take advantage of this rule; as they were rebuilding race cars with new chassis every race or two anyway, selling the used cars to customers, they decided to conceive and build 25 versions of a whole new car with 4.5-litre for the sport category with one underlying goal: to win its first overall victory in the 24 Hours of Le Mans on May 14, 1970.
In only ten months the Porsche 917 was developed, based on the Porsche 908. When Porsche was first visited by the CSI inspectors only three cars were completed, while 18 were being assembled and seven additional sets of parts were present. Porsche argued that if they assembled the cars they would have to take them apart again to prepare the cars for racing; the inspectors asked to see 25 assembled and working cars. On March 12, 1969, a 917 was displayed at the Geneva Motor Show, painted white with a green nose and a black No. 917. Brief literature on the car detailed a cash price of DM 140,000 £16,000 at period exchange rates, or the price of about ten Porsche 911s; this price did not cover the costs of development. On April 20 Porsche's head of motorsports Ferdinand Piëch displayed 25 917s parked in front of the Porsche factory to the CSI inspectors. Piëch offered the opportunity to drive any of the cars, declined; the car was designed by chief engineer Hans Mezger under the leadership of Ferdinand Piëch and Helmuth Bott.
The car was built around a light spaceframe chassis, permanently pressurised with gas to detect cracks in the welded structure. Power came from a new 4.5-litre air-cooled engine designed by Mezger, a combination of 2 of Porsche's 2.25L flat-6 engines used in previous racing cars. The'Type 912' engine featured a 180° flat-12 cylinder layout, twin overhead camshafts driven from centrally mounted gears and twin spark plugs fed from two distributors; the large horizontally mounted cooling fan was driven from centrally mounted gears. The longitudinally mounted gearbox was designed to take a set of five gears. To keep the car compact despite the large engine, the driving position was so far forward that the feet of the driver were beyond the front wheel axle; the car had remarkable technology. It was Porsche's first 12-cylinder engine and used many components made of titanium and exotic alloys, developed for lightweight "Bergspider" hill climb racers. Other methods of weight reduction were rather simple, such as making the gear shift knob out of birch wood, some methods were not simple, such as using the tubular frame itself as oil piping to the front oil cooler.
There are at least eleven variants of the 917. The original version had a removable long tail/medium tail with active rear wing flaps, but had considerable handling problems at high speed because of significant rear lift; the handling problems were investigated at a joint test at the Österreichring by the factory engineers and their new race team partners John Wyer Engineering. After exhaustive experimentation by both groups, a shorter, more upswept tail was found to give the car more aerodynamic stability at speed; the changes were adopted into the 917K for Kurzheck, or "short-tail". In 1971, a variant of the 917K appeared with a less upswept tail and vertical fins, featured the concave rear deck that had proved so effective on the 1970 version of the 917L; the fins kept the clean downforce-inducing air on the top of the tail and allowed the angle of the deck to be reduced, reducing the drag in direct proportion. The result was a more attractive looking car that maintained down force for less drag and higher top speed.
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Secondary consort, of the Manchu Bordered White Banner Liugiya clan, personal name Cuiyan, was a consort of Yixuan. She was 26 years his junior. Lady Liu was a Han Chinese Booi Aha by birth. Father: Deqing, served as a fifth rank official It is not known when Lady Liu became a lady-in-waiting, secondary consort, of Yixuan, the seventh son of the Daoguang Emperor, she gave birth on 12 February 1883 to Yixuan's fifth son, Zaifeng, on 20 May 1885 to his sixth son, on 23 June 1887 to his seventh son, Zaitao. During the reign of the Tongzhi Emperor: Lady Liu During the reign of the Guangxu Emperor: Secondary consort As secondary consort: Zaifeng, Yixuan's fifth son, inherited the title Prince Chun of the First Rank in 1891 Zaixun, Yixuan's sixth son Zaitao, Yixuan's seventh son Yixuan's second daughter
Okenia zoobotryon is a species of sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Goniodorididae. It is found on the colonial bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum on which it lives and feeds. Okenia zoobotryon is found in the temperate and warm waters of the western Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, it was reported from the Canary Islands and Australia, on the assumption that it had travelled with its host species. This is now known to be incorrect and the animals from the Pacific Ocean have been shown to be distinct species. Okenia zoobotryon is a small sea slug growing to between 6 mm in length; the maximum recorded body length is 8 mm. The rhinophores are unusual in. There are up to nine papillae in front of the gills and about six on either side of the mantle ridge; these papillae have slender stalks and globular tips. The colour of this sea slug is a translucent white speckled with brown spots on the mantle and with a few opaque white spots on the sides of the body and foot.
This species is similar in shape and arrangement of the papillae to Okenia mija, Okenia angelensis, Okenia harastii and Okenia distincta. It lives and lays its eggs on the bryozoan Zoobotryon verticillatum; the egg masses and adults are found on the bryozoan Scrupocellaria regularis and the red alga Gracilaria sp. growing in tangled clumps with Zoobotryon verticillatum and adults have been found on the bryozoan Bowerbankia maxima. Minimum recorded depth is 1 m. Maximum recorded depth is 5 m. Okenia zoobotryon lays egg masses on the surface of its host; these are flat, gelatinous ribbons attached by one edge to the underlying surface. The eggs are enclosed in capsules and hatch after about five days, developing into veliger larvae that soon begin to feed on microalgae and are planktonic, they settle in about eight days, being attracted to Zoobotryon verticillatum by chemical cues, undergo metamorphosis into juveniles within twenty-four hours of settlement. Okenia zoobotryon seems to be a stenophagous feeder, one that selectively feeds on one organism but is able to feed on others if the main prey species is unavailable.
In fact, during feeding trials, adults did not select Zoobotryon verticillatum over other possible prey species. Zoobotryon verticillatum contains certain secondary metabolites which make it distasteful to most predators. Okenia zoobotryon feeding on it were found to contain many of the same chemicals and it is that these have similar anti-predatory functions in the sea slug