The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the president of the United States. The Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal are the highest civilian awards of the United States; the presidential medal seeks to recognize those people who have made "an meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors". The award is not limited to U. S. citizens and, while it is a civilian award, it can be awarded to military personnel and worn on the uniform. It was established in 1963 by President John F. Kennedy, superseding the Medal of Freedom, established by President Harry S. Truman in 1945 to honor civilian service during World War II. Similar in name to the Medal of Freedom, but much closer in meaning and precedence to the Medal for Merit, the Presidential Medal of Freedom is the supreme civilian decoration in precedence in the United States, whereas the Medal of Freedom was inferior in precedence to the Medal for Merit.
President John F. Kennedy established the current decoration in 1963 through Executive Order 11085, with unique and distinctive insignia, vastly expanded purpose, far higher prestige, it was the first U. S. civilian neck decoration and, in the grade of Awarded With Distinction, is the only U. S. star decoration. The executive order calls for the medal to be awarded annually on or around July 4, at other convenient times as chosen by the president, but it has not been awarded every year. Recipients are selected by the president, either on the president's own initiative or based on recommendations; the order establishing the medal expanded the size and the responsibilities of the Distinguished Civilian Service Awards Board so it could serve as a major source of such recommendations. The medal may be awarded to an individual more than once, it may be awarded posthumously. In 2015, in response to questions about the medal awarded to Bill Cosby in 2002, President Barack Obama stated that there was no precedent to revoke Presidential Medals of Freedom.
The badge of the Presidential Medal of Freedom is in the form of a golden star with white enamel, with a red enamel pentagon behind it. Golden North American bald eagles with spread wings stand between the points of the star, it is worn around the neck on a blue ribbon with white edge stripes. A special given grade of the medal, known as the Presidential Medal of Freedom with Distinction, has a larger execution of the same medal design worn as a star on the left chest along with a sash over the right shoulder, with its rosette resting on the left hip; when the medal With Distinction is awarded, the star may be presented descending from a neck ribbon and can be identified by its larger size than the standard medal. Both medals may be worn in miniature form on a ribbon on the left chest, with a silver North American bald eagle with spread wings on the ribbon, or a golden North American bald eagle for a medal awarded With Distinction. In addition, the medal is accompanied by a service ribbon for wear on military service uniform, a miniature medal pendant for wear on mess dress or civilian formal wear, a lapel badge for wear on civilian clothes.
Awards and decorations of the United States government Awards and decorations of the United States military "Presidential Medal of Freedom", an article from jfklibrary.org, the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum's official website. Accessed August 22, 2009. "Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients", a list of recipients from May 5, 1993, through August 19, 2009, from senate.gov, the U. S. Senate's official website. Accessed August 22, 2009. "President Bush Honors Medal of Freedom Recipients", a news release from the White House Press Secretary, December 15, 2006, containing a transcript of President George W. Bush's opening remarks at the December 15, 2006, presentation. Hosted on georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov, a section of the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration's official website. Accessed August 22, 2009. "Medal of Freedom Ceremony", a news release, August 12, 2009, from the White House Press Secretary at whitehouse.gov, the White House's official website. Accessed August 22, 2009.
House Party: Tonight's the Night is a 2013 direct-to-video comedy film. It is the fifth installment of the House Party film series, a direct continuation of the first three, it stars Tequan Richmond and Zac Goodspeed as two high school seniors who decide to throw a party while the parents are out of town. They are seeking to get into the music industry. Rappers Kid'n Play, who were the original stars of the first three films, make a special appearance in the film; the film is directed by Darin Scott. Chris is ready to head to college, he realizes he will leave his best friend and Autumn Rose, the girl he's had a crush on since the second grade. To get over his sadness about leaving Dylan and Autumn, Chris throws one last party that turns into a hilarious disaster. Tequan Richmond as Chris Johnson Zac Goodspeed as Dylan Tristin Mays as Autumn Rose Gary Anthony Williams as Melvin Johnson Jacqui Achilleas as Mimi Johnson Rolonda Watts as Victoria Julie Hartley as Tracey Alex McGregor as Morgan Keith Powers as Quentin Kid and Play as Christopher "Kid" Robinson and Peter "Play" Martin On August 30, 2012, Warner Bros. announced that they would make a fifth film in the series, it would be released direct-to-video by Warner Bros.'
Warner Premiere. The film was released on DVD July 23, 2013. On August 30, 2012, Tambay A. Obenson, of Indiewire, reported that the Hudlin Brothers and Kid N' Play would not be in the film; the latter report proved to be false. On August 31, 2012, Stan Castle, of Atlanta Black Star, reported that Darin Scott, Don D. Scott, Doug McHenry would direct and produce the film respectively. Filming began on September 24, 2012; the movie was filmed in South Africa. Nathaniel Stevens, of Digital Chumps, writes: "This movie isn't bad because of the content of the film; the first film by the same name was the same premise and was a huge hit back in 1990. Having said that, it's obvious that the formula works and has been done over and over again through many different movies. You lay down the main premise that there is going to be a huge party you sprinkle it with plot points. Again, it has succeeded several times over; the main issue with House Party: Tonight's the Night is that all the plot points in the film are either shallow in terms of setup, or they just pop them in as time fillers.
There's nothing coherent about this film that screams'solid'." Dangerous – Written by Melody Verdugo, Colton Fisher, & Jason Rabinowitz – Performed by Chanel Leon Night Will Never End – Written by Lauren Vogel and Eric Goldman – Performed by Lauryn Vyce House Party: Tonight's the Night on IMDb
Alemayehu Shumye Tafere was an Ethiopian long-distance runner who specialised in marathon running. Born in Nazret, he took up running in 2004 when he moved to Addis Ababa with the hope of emulating the success of Haile Gebrselassie, he made his marathon debut in 2008 at the Marathon del Riso in Vercelli and won the race in a time of 2:14:33. He ran in two other marathons that year, winning the Warsaw Marathon in 2:11:50 – a course record and personal best – and breaking the course record to win the Beirut Marathon in November, he came tenth at the Zurich Marathon in 2009 and improved his personal best at the Frankfurt Marathon, running a time of 2:08:46 for fifth place as the only non-Kenyan to reach the top eight. He was among the leaders of the Xiamen Marathon on January 2010, but fell back at the 35 km mark taking fifth place, he returned to the race the following year and took third place in 2:09:58, his second sub-2:10 clocking. In his second run of 2011 he finished in the top five of the Rotterdam Marathon, again running under two hours and ten minutes.
He was one of six men to go under the previous course record at the Ljubljana Marathon in October, but did not make the podium with his fifth-place finish. Shumye won the Gold Coast Marathon on 1 July 2012 in Gold Coast, Australia, he died in a car accident on January 11, 2013. Alemayehu Shumye at World Athletics