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      4. SUMMARY

        Regalia of Sweden

        Sweden's regalia are kept deep in the vaults of the Royal Treasury, underneath the Royal Palace in Stockholm, in a museum, open to the public. The crowns and coronets have not been worn by Swedish royalty since 1907, but they are still displayed at weddings and funerals. Prior to 1907, the crowns and coronets were worn along with royal mantles by the king and other princes at the monarch's coronation, during the opening of the Riksdag, displayed on other occasions. After the death of Oscar II in 1907, the practice of wearing the crowns at the opening of the Riksdag ceased and the crowns would subsequently no longer be worn. After this, the crown of the King and his sceptre were displayed on cushions on either side of the silver throne while the king's mantle was draped over it; the old opening of state would last until 1974. Among the oldest priceless objects are the sword of Gustav Vasa and the crown, orb and key of King Erik XIV; the Crown of Eric XIV, made in Stockholm in 1561 by Flemish goldsmith Cornelius ver Welden, is typical of the Renaissance style of jewelry of his time.

        His crown bore four pairs of the letter'E' and'R', the initials of the Latin form of his name, "Ericus Rex", in green enamel, each pair being on either side of the central stones on the front and back of the circlet. When he was deposed by his brother, John III, John had each of these letters covered with identical cartouches each set with two pearls; the Swedish monarchs of the Houses of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, of Hesse and of Holstein-Gottorp preferred to use Queen Christina's crown rather than that of Eric XIV. However, they replaced the original orb and cross at the top of the crown with a new large orb enameled blue with gold star and set with diamond and with a cross of ten diamonds, they replaced the original pearls on the top of the eight large ornaments on the circlet with diamonds and replacing the pearl cartouches with eight diamond rosettes moved the circlet 45 degrees. This is the form. In the early twentieth century this orb and cross and these diamond rosettes were removed and the crown restored to the form it had under John III.

        Eric had a scepter, an orb and a key made for his coronation. This key is an item found only in the Swedish regalia, his scepter was made by Hans Heiderick in 1561 and is of gold and set with diamonds and sapphires and still used as the monarch's scepter. It was surmounted by a large round sapphire at the top enclosed by two intersecting rows of pearls; this sapphire was lost at the baptism of Gustav IV Adolf and was replaced by the present dark blue enamelled orb in 1780. The orb is of gold and is unique among European regalia in that it is engraved and enamelled with a map of the earth according to the cartography current at the time it was made. At the top of the orb is a smaller orb in blue enamel and covered with stars, above, a small cross formed of a table cut diamond surrounded by three pearls; the orb was made by Cornelius ver Weiden and engraved by Franz Beijer in Antwerp in 1568. The present blue enamel dates from 1751 and replaces the original black enamel, badly damaged at the coronation of Charles XI.

        The original model used for the engraving is not known, but the engraver placed the northern hemisphere upside down, while placing the names where they would have been if the map were right side up. The anointing horn was made in 1606 in Stockholm by Peter Kilimpe for the coronation of Carl IX and is of gold in the shape of s bull's horn supported by a pedestal; the large end is closed by a lip with a chain and on the opposite point of the horn stands a small figure of justice holding a pair of scales. The horn is decorated in ornamental relief work with multi-colored opaque and translucent enamel and set with 10 diamonds and 14 rubies, including 6 Karelian'rubies'; the burial crowns and orbs of King Carl IX and his Queen Christina have been kept at Strängnäs Cathedral. Such items are interred with the bodies but have been exhumed and put on display. On July 31, 2018, thieves escaped on a speedboat; the lost regalia were found on February 2019 in Åkersberga, Österåker municipality. Funerary regalia over the sarcophagus of King Eric XIV in Västerås Cathedral were stolen in 2013, but were soon found and are now on display in a special case there.

        Among other burial regalia in Sweden, those of King Carl X Gustav are on display at Livrustkammaren of Stockholm Palace, the burial crown of Queen Louise Ulrica is shown in the Treasury there, the crown of King Eric the Holy was on brief display at Uppsala Cathedral in 2014. As her coronation and state crown Christina of Sweden used the crown that her mother Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg had used as the queen consort of Gustav II Adolph, it was made in Stockholm in 1620 by German goldsmith Rupprecht Miller and had two arches in a fine foliage design in gold with black enameling and set with rubies and diamonds, with a small blue enameled orb and a cross, both set with diamonds. Christina had two more arches added to her mother's crown matching the first two and had more diamonds and rubies added to it to enhance the crown's appearance as the crown of a queen regnant, she added a cap of purple satin, embroidered in gold and set with more diamonds, to the inside

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