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        World War I

        World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the resulting 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July, Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.

        By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28 July, approved partial mobilisation. Full Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6 August. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within six weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.

        In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, though while neutral it became an important supplier of war materiel to the Allies. After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the declaration by Germany that its navy would resume unrestricted attacks on neutral shipping, the revelation that Germany was trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U.

        S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent with the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive; this offensive was successful, but failed to score a decisive victory and exhausted the last of the German reserves. The Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive, a continual series of attacks to which the Germans had no reply.

        Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918 ending the war. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural

        Timergara Tehsil

        Timergara is an administrative subdivision of Lower Dir District in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Lower Dir consist of 7 Tehsils namely: Timergara Tehsil Khal Tehsil Blambat Tehsil Adenzai Tehsil Lal Qilla Tehsil Samar Bagh Tehsil Munda TehsilLower Dir District Tehsils have 37 Union Councils population is 797,852 according to the 1998 census report; the projected population of Dir Lower was 1,037,091 in 2005 with the same growth between the 1981 and 1998 census i.e. 3.42% per annum. The projected male population of Dir lower in 2005 is 514,072 and the female is 523,020. Lower Dir District Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Government website section on Lower Dir United Nations

        AmbondronA (band)

        AmbondronA is a pop rock from Madagascar. The band has figured prominently in the Malagasy music scene since 2001. AmbondronA has toured extensively throughout Madagascar, has given numerous performances throughout the Indian Ocean Islands and South Africa; the band has released six albums. In 2012, the members of the band were selected by the United States Embassy in Antananarivo to participate in an International Visitors' Leadership Program on the theme of "Protecting the Environment through Music." Their nomination followed a collaboration with the U. S. Department of State in which AmbondronA filmed a music video at Ranomafana National Park and promoted environmental conservation and green tourism in Madagascar; as part of the International Visitors' Leadership Program, the band performed in several U. S. cities, including Denver and Portland, Oregon. Music of Madagascar

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